Pengertian Generic Structure Descriptive Text dan Contohnya

Generic Structure Descriptive Text – Sama halnya seperti bahasa Indonesia, saat mempelajari bahasa Inggris Anda akan mengenal berbagai jenis teks yang sering digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Salah satunya adalah jenis descriptive text yang memberikan informasi mengenai suatu objek tertentu kepada pembaca.

Setiap teks memiliki struktur tertentu yang menunjukkan ciri khas teks tersebut. Sehingga sangat penting untuk mempelajari dan memahami terlebih dahulu generic structure descriptive text sebelum membuat teks jenis ini.

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Pengertian dan Ciri-ciri Descriptive Text

Pengertian descriptive text adalah jenis teks dalam bahasa Inggris yang menggambarkan suatu objek dengan detail dan jelas. Teks jenis ini digunakan untuk memberikan penjelasan dan informasi yang konkrit kepada pembaca.

Informasi tersebut bisa berupa gambaran fisik yang terlihat, suara, kebiasaan, dan fakta-fakta lainnya tentang objek tersebut. Objek yang digambarkan bisa berupa manusia, benda, maupun tempat dan disajikan dengan jelas agar pembaca dapat membayangkan apa yang digambarkan dalam teks tersebut.

Setiap jenis teks tentu memiliki ciri-ciri tertentu agar mudah dikenali, tak terkecuali generic structure descriptive text in English. Berikut ini beberapa ciri-ciri yang dimiliki descriptive text, di antaranya:

• Menggunakan bahasa yang menarik, lugas, dan jelas
• Menggunakan adjective atau kata sifat seperti beautiful, handsome, tall, thin, short, dan lain sebagainya
• Menggunakan jenis tenses simple present dengan kata kerja bentuk pertama (Verb 1)
• Menggunakan attribute verb seperti to be (am/is/are) atau kata kerja penghubung
• Fokus memberi penjelasan pada satu objek
• Ditulis secara detail dan terperinci berdasarkan fakta terhadap objek yang akan dijelaskan

Generic Structure Descriptive Text dalam Bahasa Inggris

Untuk membuat teks deskriptif, Anda harus memahami strukturnya terlebih dahulu agar penyusunannya tepat dan sesuai. Generic structure descriptive text in english terdiri dari beberapa susunan sebagai berikut:

1. Identifikasi (Identification)
Bagian pertama dari teks deskripsi adalah identification yang memiliki fungsi untuk memperkenalkan objek yang akan dijelaskan kepada pembaca. Tujuannya agar pembaca dapat mengidentifikasi objek tersebut sebelum membaca secara rinci keseluruhan isi teks.

2. Deskripsi (Description)
Bagian ini merupakan bagian inti yang memberi penjelasan secara rinci dan detail tentang objek yang akan dijelaskan. Penggambaran tersebut merupakan penjelasan secara rinci dari bagian pengenalan atau identifikasi. Paragraf pada bagian isi deskripsi bisa dikembangkan dengan menjelaskan sifat, bentuk fisik, karakter, maupun keterangan lain yang berkaitan dengan objek yang akan dijelaskan kepada pembaca.

Contoh Descriptive Text dalam Berbagai Topik

Setelah memahami generic structure descriptive, Anda bisa mulai membuat jenis teks ini untuk menjelaskan sesuatu. Sebagai referensi, berikut ini beberapa contoh teks deskripsi dalam berbagai topik yang menarik.

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1. Descriptive Text of Place (Tempat)
Bali Island

Bali is one of the most popular island and province in Indonesia. Many people know this place especially the tourists either local or foreigner. Bali province is included the main or big island and other islands arround itu such as Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Penida, and Nusa Ceningan.

This place is located between Java island to the west and Lombok to the east island. The capital of Bali island is Denpasar. It is located at the southern part of the Bali island. Bali island is well-known as the only Hindu-majority province in Indonesia with the population around 83.5% adhering to Balinese Hinduism.

Bali become one of the most popular tourist destination in Indonesia. There are a lot of tourism objects such as Kuta Beach, Jimbaran Beach, Bali Zoo, Pura Agung Besakih, Tegalalang terraces, and many others. Besides, this island is part of the coral triangle with the highest biodiversity of marine species. Some beautiful of art and culture will be found in this island such as Kecak dance, Barong dance, Pendet dance, and many others.

Generic Structure Descriptive Text

2. Descriptive Text of People (Orang)
Joko Widodo

Joko Widodo is the 7th and current president of Indonesia based on the election in 2014 and 2019. He was born on 21st June 1961 and also known as Jokowi. Jokowi is the first president in Indonesia who is not from an elite political or military background. Before becoming president, he is a mayor in Surakarta from 2005 – 2012 and governor in Jakarta starting from 2012 – 2014.

Jokowi is a rising star in Indonesian politics since his carrier as mayor in Surakarta. He has primarily focused on building the infrastructure from Sabang to Merauke. Some projects of infrastructure such as MRT and LRT has been ready and can be used as public transportation.

Mr.Joko Widodo is tall and has distinctive voice. Jokowi is a Javanese descent and the eldest of four siblings. He has beautiful wife Iriana, two sons, and one daughter. In javanese, the meaning of his name “widodo is “healthy. He started working at the age of 12 in his father’s furniture workshop. He worked hard since he was young and now he become one of the most successful person in politic and business.

3. Descriptive Text of Animal (Hewan)
Zebra

Zebras are the species which is including as horse family. They have special characteristics on its black-and-white color of body. The habitat of zebras spread in South Africa, West Africa, Kenya, and East Africa. There are three kinds of zebra, they are Equus zebra, Equus quagga, and Equus grevyi.

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The black-and-white color of its body help zebra to survive when facing the predator. Zebras have disruptive color to break the flat contours when the zebra moves and make the pattern is even more confusing. The female zebras give birth to one child and they can almost directly stand up and runs about 1 hour after giving birth.

The baby will be cared until one year old by its mother. Because it is still a part of horse family, the body is not much different from the horse only the color that make it different. Zebras live in groups to help one another defend from predators.

They communicate with voice expressions of their face. This animal has excellent ear and eye. They are even run at speeds reaching 56 km per hour and has very strong kick that can injure the predators. Zebras are herbivores and they eat plant with the main food is grass.

4. Descriptive Text of Thing (Benda)
Rose

Everybody loves the rose because of its fragrance. This flower is a type of flowering shrub and the name comes from the word Rosa from Latin word. It grows in many different colors such as red, white, blue, pink, and many others. However, the most well-known colors are red roses, white roses, purple roses, and yellow roses.

It is belong to the family of Rosaceae and originally wild. This flower comes from some country, such as Europe, North America, many parts of Asia, Oceania, and northwest Africa. In this world, there are more than 100 different species of different roses. The wild rose can be planted in in gardens. However, mostly the garden roses are cultivars.

They have been developed to produce a wide variety of roses in many colors. The roses has strong and good smell. Mostly, the roses have thorns on the stem. This flower is symbolized as sympathy, love, or sorrow. That is why these colors are used for decoration or gift to someone special. Sometimes, rose is used also as a girl’s name.

Teks deskripsi yang jelas dan detail akan sangat membantu pembaca untuk mendapatkan informasi yang dibutuhkan. Sehingga sangat penting untuk mengikuti generic structure descriptive text dengan benar agar teks yang dibuat sesuai dengan kebutuhan para pembaca. Informasi yang disampaikan pun harus berdasarkan fakta karena teks deskripsi bukan termasuk teks fiksi atau imajinatif.

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